Tuesday, July 08, 2008

Do Schools Overdiagnose Kids because of Financial Incentives?

Jay P. Greene, author of the excellent book, Education Myths: What Special Interest Groups Want You to Believe About Our Schools--And Why It Isn't So has a column along with Greg Forster at Pajamas Media entitled "Yes, Virginia, There Is a Special Ed Bounty." It's an interesting piece pointing out that schools have a financial incentive to diagnose students as "disabled" and then not serve them.

Take a look if this is a topic that interests you.

39 Comments:

Blogger TJIC said...

My mom just retired last year from a career as a special education teacher in NJ.

She has stated for decades that the state's financial incentives push local districts to categorize slow and problem behavior kids as learning disabled, so that they'd getting additional funds.

While this may have benefited her (because it meant that there was always demand for her), she thought it was utter nonsense as a policy.

I agree.

8:57 AM, July 08, 2008  
Blogger Helen said...

TJIC,

It seems so often that schools (and teachers) do what is beneficial to themselves but not what is right for the students. It is much easier to blame the taxpayers and the government (especially a Republican administration) than it is to actually look at what schools are doing to contribute to the problem. Good for your mom for not buying into the policy.

9:12 AM, July 08, 2008  
Blogger HMT said...

If the policy is creating an incentive to miscategoreize kids then the policy is broken. It's easy to blame the administrators and teaches for gaming the system but the real solution is to fix the system not rail on the people living in it.

It's a classic "prisoner's delema". You may decide to take the high road (and be a better person for it), but the person next to you (or next to them...) might not be. The problem will never be fixed if the system isn't fixed.

10:06 AM, July 08, 2008  
Blogger DADvocate said...

Schools do all sorts of things to get the maximum amount of funding available. When schools close due to illnesses, it's more so because if attendance falls below a certain level funding falls also.

The policy makers are to blame. Most administrators are just trying to get as much money as they can for their schools. That is a major evaluation criteria for them.

11:22 AM, July 08, 2008  
Blogger Joe said...

I have a son with mild Asperger's. I was worried about having him see the school psychiatrist for some of these reasons. In the end, my wife and I went ahead and had him fully tested. I was very impressed at how thorough the work was. The psychiatrist didn't write up a boilerplate comments and clearly took a personal interest in my son (who he found particularly unique in many of his behaviors.) In the end, though, he concluded that my son was well adjusted enough that it didn't justify placing him any programs (a conclusion I agree with--yes, he does have problems concentrating, but we've learned to talk to his teachers and staying on top of things.)

11:26 AM, July 08, 2008  
Blogger Jenny said...

Schools do lots of things because of financial incentives. Look at the free and reduced lunch program. If a high enough percentage of students are on free/reduced lunch, the school gets extra money. So the standard of income to qualify is pretty low (er, high).

My family qualifies for reduced lunch even though we own a house and two cars, have cable, cell phones, unlimited long distance, and broadband internet. We eat three meals a day, pay for health insurance, and contribute to retirement accounts. We have no debt except the mortgage. But the government says we are too poor to pay for our children's lunch.

12:04 PM, July 08, 2008  
Blogger Nunyaa said...

The problem is just the same in Australia. The school has the assumption that one of my boys has ODD. Another son his teacher said, will amount to nothing and is on the road to nowhere fast. They are having round the table discussions about these two and have indicated that the "problem" lies in the way I deal with them at home. Funnily enough, one has the same teacher he had two years ago and he exhibited same behaviors. Last year he was almost a model student. The schools favorite way of dealing with them is to suspend them for 11 days a time, which I feel rewards them. I am happy to work with the school but sending them home has proven to be a failed method, they need to look at where the school is going wrong. Strangely, both boys have passing grades, yet they pay little attention or seem to in class, as per the teachers report.

12:09 PM, July 08, 2008  
Blogger Joe said...

The lunch thing drives me crazy. A family of four earning $38,000 a year qualifies for free or reduced lunches. Ever heard of peanut butter and jelly?

3:55 PM, July 08, 2008  
Blogger P. Rich said...

Helen,

Have you seen any recent stats on the breakdown between "disabled" boys and girls? Just curious.

5:35 PM, July 08, 2008  
Blogger Helen said...

P. Rich,

If you are interested in the stats, you might take a look at author Michael Gurian's work, "The Minds of Boys." From his site:

"Boys receive up to 70% of the Ds and Fs given all students, they create 90% classroom discipline problems, 80% all high school dropouts are boys, millions of American boys are on Ritalin and other mind-bending control drugs, only 45% college students are boys, and three out of four learning disabled students are boys!"

http://www.michaelgurian.com/the_minds_of_boys.html

6:07 PM, July 08, 2008  
Blogger Helen said...

P. Rich,

Also take a look at the Boys' Project statistics here:

http://www.boysproject.net/statistics.html

There are some interesting stats:

"For every 100 girls diagnosed with emotional disturbance 324 boys are diagnosed with emotional disturbance."

"For every 100 girls diagnosed with a learning disability 276 boys are diagnosed with a learning disability."

6:15 PM, July 08, 2008  
Blogger br549 said...

Girls sure seem to make up for the above imbalances when they become women. No pun intended.

6:25 PM, July 08, 2008  
Blogger Helen said...

br549,

Part of the problem may be the overdiagnosis of boys for such problems as ADHD when their behavior is simply rambunctious boy behavior--this might inflate the numbers somewhat.

7:04 PM, July 08, 2008  
Blogger Cham said...

I'm sorry I didn't become a special ed teacher. It would be guaranteed beaucoup income dollars and I would get all holidays and summers off. Instead of 38 kids to a classroom I'd only have to be in charge of 5. If I were a special ed teacher I wouldn't bother actually trying to teach the kid anything, I would pay strict attention to the administration and do only what I was told to do. I'd fill out a lot of forms and make sure my students were medicated to within an inch of their lives. I'd receive great bennies and after a few years there would be no way they could fire me.

The kids would love me because it would be easier than regular school, the parents would love me because I would invent diseases that we could blame the bad behavior on, and the administration would love me because I would follow all the rules to the letter. Life would be good.

I know quite a few people that got into special ed teaching and got out of it very quickly, but they actually wanted to teach something to somebody which was their mistake. My methodology would probably turn out better.

8:28 PM, July 08, 2008  
Blogger P. Rich said...

Thank you, Helen. And all I can say is, Good grief! Those are scary and troubling numbers, and I suspect the people who are responsible for creating those data are even more scary and troubling. I am most thankful I don't have children in school, especially male children.

9:02 PM, July 08, 2008  
Blogger Marbel said...

That overdiagnosis of boys has led many families to homeschooling. I've heard and read so many stories of boys who couldn't manage in school thriving in an environment where they weren't treated like defective girls.

10:05 PM, July 08, 2008  
Blogger Eric said...

dadvocate and hmt,

Sorry, but no. Administrators and others who over- or misdiagnose kids into special ed in order to drum up more dollars for their schools should be blamed -- they are defrauding the taxpayers, the students who shouldn't be in special ed, and the ones that should be in special ed but are now have the attention due them diluted by the others.

While one should hope and demand that policy makers should put some controls on the special ed $$ (whereupon administrators and teachers' unions will wail about the paperwork), the decision to misdiagnose in order to get the bucks is made where the rubber meets the road. Taking grossly unfair advantage of the policy is no more ethical than justifying stealing stuff out of your neighbor's house because he left the door unlocked.

10:08 PM, July 08, 2008  
Blogger br549 said...

Well, there are children in this world in need of help. Emotional problems can be devastating to an individual. And not necessarily the individual with the emotional problem(s). Physical and mental problems are there for all to see. Lines are drawn as to whether or not an individual is able to function in society. Those standing very close to, either side of, the gray area along that line, need special employers to be able to play the game.

Our government's answers always involve bureaucrats and institutions in need of large sums of money. The ROI is always poor.
Elected individuals change. But the bureaucracies they make remain in place, more deeply embedded as time goes on. The cumulative affect only guarantees it needs more money, day after day.

There is an outfit, Eggleston Services, in my area, that hires and trains folks who are not capable otherwise. They end up with jobs, and earn their own way.
Like alternative fuels, it is not the whole answer. But it helps many. A lot more than any government program in my area does.

My sister has been in special ed for 30 years +. She tries hard to help kids succeed in the programs she is assigned to execute. She has yet to see the end result of any individual child she has taught, for the amount of time she was a particular child's teacher. Meaning, she has no idea if she is truly doing any good or not. But she's in the union, votes democrat, and has her pension coming. She will cap out in pay scale here shortly, which is also around retirement age - hint, hint.
She will take that hint, or bait, as it were.

7:03 AM, July 09, 2008  
Blogger J. Bowen said...

I love the dismal science...

9:55 AM, July 09, 2008  
Blogger Musings from the Smartest Man in the World said...

It seems to me that most of these stats are coming from public schools (duh).

Now my question is this: Why aren't private schools having the same problems with ADD and ADHD boys?

If it's strictly driven my money I can see why public schools would have more issues. But if it's actually the boys or how they are being raised, then it wouldn't matter what school they go to.

2:07 PM, July 09, 2008  
Blogger Jenny said...

One reason that private schools are not having the same problem is that they can push behavior problems onto the public schools.

If a private school has a student that they don't want to deal with, they can kick them out. A public school cannot kick the student out, so they come up with all manner of excuses as to why the student cannot be taught.

It is the same solution although it is manifested in a different way. Get rid of the student.

4:25 PM, July 09, 2008  
Blogger Marbel said...

If a private school has a student that they don't want to deal with, they can kick them out

When I was teaching my homeschooled boy to read a few years ago, I noticed that he was not a conventional learner. After doing some research I figured a few things out, changed things around, and things improved. Anyway, during all this I spoke with a teacher at a small private school about him. This school had a very low student to teacher ratio and was supposedly excellent. The teacher told me that if I was to send my boy there, the school would not be able to help him with his reading problems even if he passed the test to get in at all.

We are soon to have him tested for some learning disabilities and Asperger's characteristics. We were advised not to seek any help from our school district, even though legally they are supposed to give us services if we request them (we support the system via our taxes, of course). Because the kid isn't in the classroom they don't want anything to do with us. I suppose we could fight it but why bother fighting for substandard service; we found someone in private practice to work with us.

5:07 PM, July 09, 2008  
Blogger br549 said...

We do an awful lot of bitching in here. They do an awful lot of bitching on left wing blogs.

None of us solves a freaking thing, damn it.

By all means, attack at will. But please attack with an answer.

6:43 PM, July 09, 2008  
Blogger Marbel said...

Hey br549, how about this answer? Not completely thought out, not perfect, but this is my dream:

Admit that the American public school system is not doing a great job of educating the public, but mostly only the average portion of it. Get rid of it, cold turkey. Let people keep the property tax money that supports it. There will be some confusion for a period of time, of course. But parents who are currently interested in their kids' educations will find ways to get them educated. Teachers who want to teach will find ways to teach. Oh, there won't be any need for teachers' unions so no more dues for teachers to pay, no more politicians indebted to the NEA. Teachers can get together and start private schools, or teach as independent tutors. Teachers who specialize can advertise as such: ADHD, Asperger's, math, advanced chemistry. (Lots of homeschool groups pool their resources and hire great teachers - retired engineers, scientists, etc - to give classes.) Local community groups and private foundations could probably do a great job of pulling in kids whose parents won't take care of them, and help them get an education relevant to their lives and needs. Some kids will never get a good education - but some kids aren't getting it now. Get the government out of the education business

Of course millions are opting out of the system already, via private schooling and homeschooling. So maybe it will crash on its own. Not in my lifetime, though, I'm afraid.

9:08 PM, July 09, 2008  
Blogger Casey said...

marbel, you're missing the point as well.

The problem isn't necessarily the public school system; it's the fact that the Federal government has pretty much taken over.

Return control to the smallest locality, whether that's a village, township, or small city. That's how it used to be, and that method worked fine for over a century, after free public schools became widespread.

10:46 PM, July 09, 2008  
Blogger br549 said...

The federal governement is a deeply embedded bureaucracy. It doesn't get any more embedded than that. The two major teachers unions have a strangle hold on the teachers. They, too, are deeply embedded. Elections don't affect any of them. Wanna teach? Better join the union.

Local school boards don't pay attention to the people in their areas because they are controlled and protected by the federal government. Just as the teachers are controlled and protected by the unions.

It's a monster. And it will not obey.

6:50 AM, July 10, 2008  
Blogger Cham said...

Marbel:

They have that system, in many South American countries and the Caribbean. Those that care about their kids send there kids to small cheap private schools. But many parents don't. School becomes an additional expense they feel is unimportant. The young children end up spending their days doing what kids do, forming gangs, finding ways to get into trouble and obtaining money through theft and pick-pocketing. When these kids grow up life doesn't go very well for them.

8:26 AM, July 10, 2008  
Blogger J. Bowen said...

Here's an interesting podcast that briefly (though effectively) deals with the issue of incentives (though in the context of public transportation). What caught my ear was the attention that was given to incentives. It seems hard to believe that something that seems so obvious isn't as obvious to everyone...

5:04 PM, July 11, 2008  
Blogger Marbel said...

Yes, Cham, I know you are right. When I read about kids getting through high school unable to read, though, I wonder if we are really doing so much better. Maybe our numbers of uneducated are smaller.

I don't really have it in for public education. I understand the value of an educated populace. But reforms don't seem to ever do anything. My alternate dream is that people have more choices and can even use a mix of public, private and homeschooling - whatever suits their needs the most. And that there could be a way of eliminating the grade level bind that keeps a child capable of 6th grade "language arts" but only 3rd grade math stuck in 4th grade because of his age. But mass education does not lend itself to such specialization for each child's abilities like that.

9:51 PM, July 11, 2008  
Blogger look said...

情趣用品,
性感睡衣,
免費視訊聊天,
視訊交友網,
美姬圖影,
情境坊歡愉用品,
花美姬情趣用品,
成人圖片,
臺灣情色網,
嘟嘟情人色網,
色情網站,
情境坊歡愉用品,
徵信,
徵信公司,
徵信,
外遇,
徵信,
徵信,
抓姦,
徵信,
外遇,
徵信,
徵信社,
徵信社,
抓姦,
徵信社,
徵信社,
徵信社,
,
,
整型,
視訊聊天,
視訊交友,
AV女優,
色情,
A片,
A片,
情趣用品,
情色,
A片,
色情影片,
情趣用品,
A片,
AV女優,
視訊聊天室,
聊天,
情趣用品,
情惑用品性易購,
情侶歡愉用品,
A片,
情趣,
情惑用品性易購,
辣妹視訊,
自慰套,
情侶歡愉用品,
寄情築園小遊戲,
aio交友愛情館,
美女視訊,
色情A片,
情趣用品,
徵信社,
情趣用品,
A片,
美女視訊,
色情A片,
AV女優,
A片,
辣妹視訊,
自慰套,
情侶歡愉用品,

3:38 PM, March 15, 2009  
Blogger eda said...

買煙火,製造浪漫煙火小舖,101煙火,煙火小舖,煙火,仙女棒,沖天炮,勝利之花,甩炮,升空煙火,情趣用品,情趣,衣蝶情趣精品百貨,情趣用品衣蝶
情趣,自慰套,飛機杯,充氣娃娃,AV女優,AV,電動按摩棒,按摩棒,G點,調情棒,後庭拉珠棒,跳蛋,變頻跳蛋,有線跳蛋,無線跳蛋,潤滑液,男女穿戴用品,穿戴用品,情趣內衣,性感內衣,情趣跳蛋,角色扮演,情趣角色扮演,丁字褲,情趣內褲,性感內褲,性感吊帶襪,網襪,性感網襪,T字褲,煙火批發,情趣禮品,情趣用品

11:20 AM, April 06, 2009  
Blogger nini said...

85cc免費影城 愛情公寓正妹牆川藏第一美女 成人影片 情色交友網 美女視訊 美女視訊 視訊情人高雄網 JP成人影城 383成人影城 aa片免費a片下載 a片線上看aa片免費看 ※a片線上試看※sex520免費影片※ aa片免費看 BT成人論壇 金瓶影片交流區 自拍美女聊天室 aa片免費a片下載 SEX520免費影片 免費a片 日本美女寫真集 sex520aa免費影片 sex520aa免費影片 BT成人網 Hotsee免費視訊交友 百分百貼影片區 SEX520免費影片 免費視訊聊天室 情人視訊高雄網 星光情色討論版 正妹牆 383成人影城 線上85cc免費影城 85cc免費影城 85cc免費影城 85cc免費影城 ※免費視訊聊天室※ ※免費視訊聊天室※ 免費視訊聊天室 85cc免費影片 85cc免費影片 080苗栗人聊天室 080苗栗人聊天室 080中部人聊天室 080中部人聊天室 免費a片下載 免費a片 AA片免費看 aa片免費看 aa片免費看 aa片免費看 aa片免費看 日本av女優影片 av女優 av女優無碼影城 av女優 av女優 百分百成人圖片 百分百成人圖片 視訊情人高雄網 電話交友 影音電話交友 絕色影城 絕色影城 夜未眠成人影城 夜未眠成人影城 色咪咪影片網 色咪咪影片網 色咪咪影片網 色咪咪影片網 色咪咪影片網 免費色咪咪貼影片 免費色咪咪貼影片 色情遊戲 色情遊戲 色情遊戲 色情遊戲 影音視訊交友網 視訊交友網 080視訊聊天室 ※免費視訊聊天室※ ※免費視訊聊天室※ 視訊聊天室 成人影音視訊聊天室 ut影音視訊聊天室 ※免費視訊聊天室※ 視訊ukiss聊天室視訊ukiss聊天室 視訊交友90739 視訊交友90739 情人視訊網 168視訊美女 168視訊美女 168視訊美女 視訊美女館 視訊美女館 免費視訊美女網 小高聊天室 小高聊天室 aio交友聊天室 aio交友聊天室 交友聊天室 交友聊天室 線上a片 線上a片 線上a片 線上a片 線上a片 免費線上a片 免費線上a片 嘟嘟成人網站 成人漫畫 情色文學 嘟嘟成人網 成人貼圖區 情色文學成人小說 微風成人區 情色貼圖區 免費視訊聊天 免費成人圖片區 愛情公寓 愛情公寓聊天室 寄情築園小遊戲 免費aa片線上看 aa片免費看 情色SXE聊天室 SEX情色遊戲 色情A片 免費下載 av女優 俱樂部 情色論壇 辣妹視訊 情色貼圖網 免費色情 聊天室 情人視訊聊天室 免費a片成人影城 免費a片-aa片免費看 0204貼圖區 SEX情色 交友聊天-線上免費 女優天堂 成人交友網 成人情色貼圖區 18禁 -女優王國 080視訊美女聊天室 080視訊聊天室 視訊交友90739 免費a片 aio 視訊交友網 成人影城-免費a片※免費視訊聊天※85cc免費影片日本線上免費a片 免費色咪咪影片免費色咪咪影片aaa片免費看影片aaa片免費看成人影城免費色咪咪影片

3:35 PM, April 06, 2009  
Blogger 天天看正妹 said...

免費視訊聊天 ut聊天室辣妹視訊UT影音視訊聊天室 吉澤明步QQ美女視訊秀 85cc免費影片aa影片下載城sex免費成人影片aaa片免費看短片美女視訊 sex383線上娛樂場av969 免費短片日本免費視訊aa影片下載城視訊網愛聊天室影音視訊交友 咆哮小老鼠分享論壇sex520免費影片aa免費影片下載城aio辣妺視訊 aio辣妹交友愛情館 jp成人影片aio交友愛情館馬子免費影片免費線上a片18成人85cc影城0204movie免費色咪咪視訊網pc交友s383視訊玩美女人34c高雄視訊聊天jp成人免費視訊辣妹 kk777視訊俱樂部xxxpandalive173影音視訊聊天室 sex520-卡通影片成人免費視訊 完美女人13060 免費視訊聊天sexy girl video movie辣妹妹影音視訊聊天室UT視訊美女交友視訊情色網百事無碼a片dvd線上aa片免費看18禁成人網ut聊天室kk俱樂部視訊激情網愛聊天 情人小魔女自拍卡通aa片免費看夜未眠成人影城aio性愛dvd辣妹影片直播拓網視訊交友視訊聊天室ggoo168論壇視訊辣妹love104影音live秀 美女show-live視訊情色yam交友辣妹妹影音視訊聊天室s383情色大網咖視訊aaa俱樂部台灣情色網無碼avdvdsexy diamond sex888入口Show-live視訊聊天室

4:39 AM, April 15, 2009  
Blogger 天天看正妹 said...

免費 a 片aaaaa片俱樂部影片aaaaa片俱樂部dodo豆豆聊天室sex520網路自拍美女聊天室天堂免費線上avdvd援交av080影片aa影片下載城aaa片免費看短片成人圖片區18成人avooogo2av免費影片sexdiy影城免費線上成人影片bonbonsex0951影片下載日本av女優sex888免費看影片免費視訊78論壇辣妹有約辣妹no31314視訊dudu sex免費影片avdvd情色影片免費色咪咪影片網av080免費試看日本美女寫真集辣妹脫衣麻將視訊聊天室性福免費影片分享日本美女寫真集,kk視訊aio交友愛情館免費成人美女視訊bt論壇色情自拍免費a片卡通tw 18 net卡通18美少女圖色情漫畫777美女小護士免費 aa 片試看百分百成人情色圖片a片免費觀賞sexy girls get fuckedsexy girl video movie情色文學成人小說sex888免費看eyny 伊莉論壇sexdiy影城自拍情色0204movie免費影片aio免費aa片試看s383情色大網咖sexy girl video movie草莓牛奶AV論壇台灣論壇18禁遊戲區環球辣妹聊天室 90691拓網aio交友愛情館拓網學生族視訊777美女 sex888影片分享區hi5 tv免費影片aa的滿18歲卡通影片sex383線上娛樂場sexdiy影城免費a片線上觀看真人美女辣妹鋼管脫衣秀比基尼辣妹一夜情視訊aio交友愛情館

4:39 AM, April 15, 2009  
Blogger 天天看正妹 said...

視訊做愛聊天室avdvd-情色網ut13077視訊聊天A片-無碼援交東京熱一本道aaa免費看影片免費視訊聊天室微風成人ut聊天室av1688影音視訊天堂85cc免費影城亞洲禁果影城微風成人av論壇sex520免費影片JP成人網免費成人視訊aaa影片下載城免費a片 ut交友成人視訊85cc成人影城免費A片aa的滿18歲影片小魔女免費影片小魔女免費影城免費看 aa的滿18歲影片sex383線上娛樂場kk777視訊俱樂部aa的滿18歲影片85cc免費影片a片免費看A片-sex520plus論壇sex520免費影片85cc免費影片aaa片免費看短片aa影片下載城aaaaa片俱樂部影片aaaaa片俱樂部aa的滿18歲影片小魔女免費影片台灣論壇免費影片免費卡通影片線上觀看線上免費a片觀看85cc免費影片免費A片aa影片下載城ut聊天室辣妹視訊UT影音視訊聊天室 日本免費視訊aaaa 片俱樂部aaa片免費看短片aaaa片免費看影片aaa片免費看短片免費視訊78論壇情色偷拍免費A片免費aaaaa片俱樂部影片後宮0204movie免費影片av俱樂部aaaa彩虹頻道免費影片 杜蕾斯成人免費卡通影片線上觀看85cc免費影片線上觀賞免費線上歐美A片觀看免費a片卡通aaa的滿18歲卡通影片sex520免費影片免費 a 片免費視訊聊天jp成人sex520免費影片

4:39 AM, April 15, 2009  
Blogger 徵信 said...

外遇外遇外遇外遇外遇外遇外遇外遇外遇 外遇
外遇 外遇外遇 外遇 外遇
外遇 外遇 外遇
外遇


外遇 外遇
外遇
外遇 外遇外遇
外遇

外遇 外遇外遇 外遇 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 ,
外遇 外遇 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇外遇 外遇外遇 外遇 外遇

外遇 外遇

外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇 , 外遇劈腿劈腿劈腿劈腿劈腿劈腿劈腿劈腿喜帖囍帖卡片外遇外遇 外遇 外遇外遇 外遇
外遇 外遇 外遇 外遇剖析 外遇調查 外遇案例 外遇諮詢 偷情 第三者外遇話題 外遇發洩 感情挽回 徵信社 外遇心態 外遇 通姦 通姦罪 外遇徵信社徵信社外遇 外遇 抓姦徵信協會徵信公司 包二奶 徵信社 徵信 徵信社 徵信社 徵信社 徵信社 徵信 徵信 婚姻 婚前徵信 前科 個人資料 外遇 第三者 徵信社 偵探社 抓姦 偵探社 偵探社婚 偵探社 偵探社偵探家事服務家事服務家電維修家事服務家事服務家事服務家事服務家事服務持久持久持久持久持久持久持久離婚網頁設計徵信社徵信社徵信徵信社外遇離婚協議書劈腿持久持久持久持久持久劈腿剖析徵信徵信社外遇外遇外遇外遇徵信社徵信社徵信社徵信社徵信社徵信社徵信徵信社徵信徵信徵信徵信徵信徵信徵信徵信徵信徵信徵信徵信徵信徵信徵信徵信徵信徵信徵信徵信徵信徵信徵信徵信社徵信社徵信社徵信社徵信社徵信社徵信社徵信社徵信公會 徵信公會 徵信公會 徵信公會 徵信公會 徵信公會 徵信公會 徵信公會 徵信公會 徵信公會 徵信公會 徵信公會 徵信公會 徵信公會 徵信公會 徵信公會 徵信公會 徵信公會 徵信公會 徵信公會 徵信公會 徵信公會 徵信公會 徵信公會 徵信公會 徵信公會 徵信公會 徵信公會 徵信公會 徵信公會 徵信公會 徵信公會 徵信公會 徵信公會 徵信公會 徵信協會 徵信協會 徵信協會 徵信協會 徵信協會 徵信協會 徵信協會 徵信協會 徵信協會 徵信協會 徵信協會 徵信協會 徵信協會 徵信協會 徵信協會 徵信協會 徵信協會 徵信協會 徵信協會 徵信協會 徵信協會 徵信協會 徵信協會 徵信協會 徵信協會 徵信協會 徵信協會 徵信協會 徵信協會 徵信協會 徵信協會 徵信協會 徵信協會 徵信協會 徵信協會 徵信協會 徵信協會 徵信協會 徵信公會 徵信協會 徵信協會 徵信協會 徵信協會 徵信協會 徵信協會 徵信協會 徵信公會 徵信協會 徵信協會 徵信協會 徵信協會 徵信協會 徵信協會 徵信協會 徵信協會 徵信協會 徵信協會 徵信協會 徵信協會 徵信協會 徵信協會 徵信協會 徵信協會 劈腿 劈腿 劈腿 劈腿 劈腿 劈腿 劈腿 劈腿 劈腿 劈腿 劈腿 劈腿 劈腿 劈腿

10:55 PM, April 21, 2009  
Blogger 9988 said...

smiling,face.Not,only,can,answer,good,intentions,by,form.Can,also,shorten,distance,between,human,relationses!Happiness-not-is-getting-much.And-is-accounting-less~wish-happy-delectation....

10:41 AM, May 05, 2009  
Blogger 1798 said...

視訊做愛視訊美女無碼A片情色影劇kyo成人動漫tt1069同志交友網ut同志交友網微風成人論壇6k聊天室日本 avdvd 介紹免費觀賞UT視訊美女交友..........................

6:12 AM, May 20, 2009  
Blogger 1122 said...

辣妹哈拉視訊聊天室台灣論壇女生免費視訊辣妹北台灣視訊aaa的滿18歲卡通影片視訊交友90739a片欣賞本土自拍天堂aa片免費看影片 情色小說免費成人卡通kiss168成人電影視訊妹 aa片免費看aa 片免費看sex888sex999免費影片免費視訊聊天a性感用品維納斯視訊交友網080中部人聊天室台灣美眉討論區美女短片免費試看

5:10 AM, June 08, 2009  

Post a Comment

<< Home